Municipal Stormwater Systems
The increased runoff rates caused by urbanization, create the need of efficient and well planned stormwater management to reduce risks of flooding. However, it is not only risk for flooding that creates the need for stormwater management, but also the aspect of water quality. Stormwater transports pollutants accumulated on surfaces and is therefore in need of treatment, on order to prevent negative effects on recipient water bodies. Typical stormwater bound pollutants are:
- Heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, zinc and nickel.
- Oils and other organic pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH’s).
- Nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous.
Micropollutants, such as microplastics, have recently attracted more and more attention. Stormwater is seen as a significant pathway for microplastics, with tire abrasion and road wear deemed as the main source of particles.